THE GOLDEN HINDE
The Golden Hind was an English galleon best known for her privateering circumnavigation of the globe between 1577 and 1580, captained by Sir Francis Drake. She was originally known as Pelican, but was renamed by Drake mid-voyage in 1578, in honour of his patron, Sir Christopher Hatton, whose crest was a golden 'hind' (a female red deer). Hatton was one of the principal sponsors of Drake's world voyage. One full-sized, still sailable reconstruction containing original pieces of the galleon exists in London, on the south bank of the Thames.
Queen Elizabeth I partly sponsored Sir Francis Drake as the leader of an expedition intended to pass around South America through the Strait of Magellan and to explore the coast that lay beyond. The queen's support was advantageous; Drake had official approval to benefit himself and the queen, as well as to cause the maximum damage to the Spaniards. This eventually culminated in the Anglo–Spanish War. Before setting sail, Drake met the queen face-to-face for the first time and she said to him, "We would gladly be revenged on the King of Spain for divers injuries that we have received."
The explicit object was to "find out places meet to have traffic." Drake, however, acted as a privateer, with unofficial support from Queen
Elizabeth. She is described as a "mid-16th-century warship during the transition from the carrack to the galleon," and displaced about 100 tons. He first named his flagship Pelican, but renamed her Golden Hind on 20 August
1578 to honour his patron, Sir Christopher Hatton, whose family crest was a golden hind. He set sail in December 1577 with five small ships, manned by 164 men, and reached the Brazilian coast in early 1578.
The history of the Golden Hind Ship voyage during the first year, taken from the Golden Hind ship's log:
1577 Nov 15: The Golden Hind Ship left Plymouth but returned owing to contrary winds
1577 Dec 13: The Golden Hind left Plymouth again with 5 ships (Pelican, Elizabeth, Swan, Marigold, and Benedict)
1578 Jun 20: Off east coast of S. America at Port Julian. Thomas Doughty tried and executed for mutiny. The Swan and The Christopher broken up, no longer needed. Stores and crew transferred to remaining ships. Pelican renamed Golden Hind
1578 Aug 20: The Golden Hind Entered Straits of Magellan
1578 Sep 6: Reach Pacific
1578 Sep 30: Marigold lost. Golden Hind and Elizabeth blown 300 miles south to Cape Horn
1578 Oct 7: Violent squall separates Golden Hind and Elizabeth. Elizabeth waits for Drake but returns home
1578 Dec 5: Raid on Valparaiso. Capture Spanish ship carrying gold and wines. The Golden Hind Refitted here
The History of the Golden Hind Ship - 1579 Voyage
1579 Mar 1: Took the Cacafuego. 80lb gold, 13 chests of pieces of eight, 26 tons of silver, jewels and pearls. Also captured 2 pacific pilots
1579 Apr 15: The Golden Hind Reached Central America
1579 Jun 1: Latitude 48N (now Vancouver). North West route considered too great a hazard. Return to New Albion
1579 Jul 23: The Golden Hind left New Albion
1579 Oct 16: The Golden Hind reached the Philippines
1579 Nov 3: The Golden Hind reached Spice Islands (Moluccas). Trade relations established with Sultan of Ternate, six tons of cloves taken aboard
1580 Jan 9: Ship struck reef; 8 cannon and 3 tons of cloves jettisoned. Wind changed and ship slid off reef
Mar 26 1580: The Golden Hind reached Java and left for Cape of Good Hope
July 22 1580: Reached Sierra Leone without stopping since leaving Java
September 26 1580:The Golden Hind was the only vessel to return from Francis Drake’s expedition with 58 men - five vessels had originally set out from England with 164 men
1581 April: Francis Drake was knighted "Sir Francis Drake" on board the Golden Hind by Queen Elizabeth in 1581. The ship was decorated with banners on the day that Drake was knighted and Queen Elizabeth I dined on board the Golden Hind
The ship was taken to a dry dock Deptford for public exhibition to honour Sir Francis Drake. The Golden Hind stayed in dry dock for nearly 100 years but it was badly neglected and the timbers rotted. So ended the story of the Golden Hind but for the manifold replicas that were to be built.
SIR FRANCIS DRAKE
was noted in his life for one daring feat after another; his greatest was
his circumnavigation of the earth, the first after Magellan's. He sailed
from Plymouth on Dec. 13, 1577. The squadron consisted of five vessels,
the two larger ships being the Pelican, Drake's own ship, renamed Golden
Hind on the voyage, on August 20, 1578; and the Elizabeth, commanded by
John Winter. Three smaller vessels were the Marigold, Swan, and Benedict.
Only one ship, the Golden Hind, made the complete voyage, returning on
Sept. 26, 1580, "very richly fraught with gold,
stones" (Stow, Annales , p. 807). Number of crew members: 164
quietly informed the Queen and the investors of the amount of profit which
had been earned by the voyage - this has been stated to be 4600 percent (£47
for each £1 invested). On April 4, 1581, Elizabeth had Drake knighted, on
the occasion of a visit to the Golden Hind. He certainly deserved this
honor. According to the economist J. M. Keynes, the English foreign debt
was paid off from the Queen's share of the proceeds, and there was enough
left over (£42,000) for her to capitalize a new venture, the Levant
Company, a firm which played an important part in the development of British
Even today in a modern United Kingdom knighthoods typically follow significant contributions to the Treasury.
DRAKE - Born on the Crowndale estate of Lord Francis Russell, 2nd earl
of Bedford, Drake’s father, Edmund Drake, was the son of one of the
latter’s tenant farmers. Edmund fled his native county after arraignment
for assault and robbery in 1548. The claim that he was a refugee from
Roman Catholic persecution was a later pious fiction. From even before his
father’s departure, Francis was brought up among relatives in Plymouth:
the Hawkins family, who combined vocations as merchants and pirates.
THE SIX WIVES OF HENRY VIII
LINKS & REFERENCE
Copyright © Horse Sanctuary Trust 2019.